Sunday, 16 October 2011

What Is Design for Print?//Manual Research//GLOSSARY AND DEFINITIONS.

Definitions for particularly print-based "Techno Latin"- helping define a more clear and fluid understanding of particularly processes or technological terms.
I will use these sources, when designing the print manual, as inspiration for creating my own "spin" and term for each definition- hopefully being as clear and simplistic as possible for universal understanding (in alphabetical order).


Additive colour is produced by the addition of light from a luminescent primary source. A light bulb appears white because it emits light in all colours of the visible spectrum, which combine to produce white light. All the colours in the light spectrum add up to make white light. Computer monitors use three additive colours, Red, Green and Blue (RGB), which are combined in different ways to produce millions of other colours.

An additive color model involves light emitted directly from a source or illuminant of some sort. The additive reproduction process usually uses red, green and blue light to produce the other colors. Combining one of these additive primary colors with another in equal amounts produces the additive secondary colors cyan, magenta, and yellow. Combining all three primary lights (colors) in equal intensities produces white. Varying the luminosity of each light (color) eventually reveals the full gamut of those three lights (colors).


Cyan, magenta, yellow, and black, the four colors used in most color printers, usually in two ink cartridges, one of black ink and the other containing cyan, magenta, and yellow inks in separate reservoirs

cyan, magenta, yellow, key.
A colour model that describes each colour in terms of the quantity of each secondary colour (cyan, magenta, yellow), and "key" (black) it contains. The CMYK system is used for printing. For mixing of pigments, it is better to use the secondary colours, since they mix subtractively instead of additively. The secondary colours of light are cyan, magenta and yellow, which correspond to the primary colours of pigment (blue, red and yellow). In addition, although black could be obtained by mixing these three in equal proportions, in four-colour printing it always has its own ink. This gives the CMYK model. The K stands for "Key' or 'blacK,' so as not to cause confusion with the B in RGB.
Alternative colour models are RGB and HSB

Stands for "Cyan Magenta Yellow Black." These are the four basic colors used for printing color images. Unlike RGB (red, green, blue), which is used for creating images on your computer screen, CMYK colors are "subtractive." This means the colors get darker as you blend them together. Since RGB colors are used for light, not pigments, the colors grow brighter as you blend them or increase their intensity.

Technically, adding equal amounts of pure cyan, magenta, and yellow should produce black. However, because of impurities in the inks, true black is difficult to create by blending the colors together. This is why black (K) ink is typically included with the three other colors. The letter "K" is used to avoid confusion with blue in RGB.

(Cyan Magenta Yellow blacK) The color space used for commercial printing and most color computer printers. In theory, cyan, magenta and yellow (CMY) can print all colors, but inks are not pure and black comes out muddy. The black ink (K) is required for quality printing. See color space, RGB and ink coverage.


(Debossing) The image is depressed into a material such as paper, leather or suede, so the image sits below the product surface. Ink may or may not accompany the stamp (color stamping).

to indent (a figure or design) into a surface: The design on the book's cover is debossed.


A method for punching or cutting out any special shapes by using a metal form that is called a die. Also used to refer to the cut out shape. Can be used with paper or fabric.

A die is a specialized tool used in manufacturing industries to cut or shape material using a press. Like molds, dies are generally customized to the item they are used to create. Products made with dies range from simple paper clips to complex pieces used in advanced technology.

Metal, paper, or other material shaping process in which a metal die with sharp edges is pressed into the material to cut it.


Digital printing refers to methods of printing from a digital based image directly to a variety of media. It usually refers to professional printing where small run jobs from desktop publishing and other digital sources are printed using large format and/or high volume laser or inkjet printers. 

Modern printing methods such as laser and ink-jet printing are known as digital printing. In digital printing, an image is sent directly to the printer using digital files such as PDFs and those from graphics software such as Illustrator and InDesign. This eliminates the need for a printing plate, which is used in offset printing, which can save money and time.

Without the need to create a plate, digital printing has brought about fast turnaround times and printing on demand. Instead of having to print large, pre-determined runs, requests can be made for as little as one print. While offset printing still often results in slightly better quality prints, digital methods are being worked on at a fast rate to improve quality and lower costs.


A halftone illustration made from a single original with two different colors at different screen angles.

(Communication Arts / Printing, Lithography & Bookbinding) a process for producing halftone illustrations using two shades of a single colour or black and a colour.

Duotone is a halftone reproduction of an image using the superimposition of one contrasting color halftone (traditionally black) over another color halftone. This is most often used to bring out middle tones and highlights of an image. The most common colors used are blue, yellow, browns and reds.
Now due to recent advances in technology, duotones, tritones, and quadtones can be easily created using image manipulation programs.


Paper or cardboard having different colors, finishes, or stocks on opposite sides. 

Carve or mold a design on (a surface) so that it stands out in relief.

To mold or carve in relief: emboss a design on a coin.


A rotary relief printing method using rubber or plastic plates and fluid inks or dyes for printing on fabrics and impervious materials such as plastics, as well as on paper

A relief printing technique similar to letterpress that employs rubber or soft plastic plates, a simple inking system, and fast-drying inks.
Frequently used for printing on plastic, foil, acetate film, brown paper, and other materials used in packaging.


Powdered wool or cloth, sprinkled on wallpaper, cloth, or metal to make a raised pattern

Pulverized wool or felt that is applied to paper, cloth, or metal to produce a texture or pattern.

A velvetlike pattern produced on wallpaper or cloth decorated with flock

(Foil Blocked) A logo or area of type can be printed in a solid (opaque) foil. Usually gold or silver (as provides a truly “metallic” look), don’t overlook the stunning other colours to make your piece stand out.

Foil blocking is basically metal foil (usually Silver Foil Blocking or Gold Foil Blocking) which is used to create shiny metal foil effects on the paper. Mainly used as a special effect to enhance the overall look and quality of a print job.


Reproduction of full-colour photographs or art with the four basic colours of ink (cyan, magenta, yellow, black).


The limited range of colors provided by a specific input device, output device, or pigment set.


An image produced from etching a plate through an intaglio process and producing a print from it

A method of printing with etched plates or cylinders; intaglio printing.


A series of achromatic tones having varying proportions of white and black, to give a full range of grays between white and black; a gray scale is usually divided into 10 steps; however, electronic scanners can typically differentiate 16 to 256 levels.

A range of gray shades from white to black, as used in a monochrome display or printout
In photography and computing, a grayscale or greyscale digital image is an image in which the value of each pixel is a single sample, that is, it carries only intensity information. Images of this sort, also known as black-and-white, are composed exclusively of shades of gray, varying from black at the weakest intensity to white at the strongest.


A particular arrangement of imposed pages

The arrangement of printed matter to form a sequence of pages.


Offset printing is a commonly used printing technique in which the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. When used in combination with the lithographic process, which is based on the repulsion of oil and water, the offset technique employs a flat (planographic) image carrier on which the image to be printed obtains ink from ink rollers, while the non-printing area attracts a water-based film (called "fountain solution"), keeping the non-printing areas ink-free.

Offset lithography is a process used for printing on a flat surface, using printing plates. An image is transferred to a printing plate, which can be made of a variety of materials such as metal or paper. The plate is then chemically treated so that only image areas (such as type, colors, shapes and other elements) will accept ink. Water and ink is applied to the plate. Because of the chemical treatment, ink only "sticks" to the image areas, which reject the water. Areas without images reject the ink. The plate is then rolled onto a rubber cylinder applying the inked area, and in turn the rubber cylinder (or "blanket") applies the image to the paper. The system is "offset" because the plate does not come in direct contact with the paper, which preserves the quality of the plate.


Pad printing is a printing process that can transfer a 2-D image onto a 3-D object. This is accomplished using an indirect offset (gravure) printing process that involves an image being transferred from the printing plate (cliché) via a silicone pad onto a substrate (surface to be printed). Pad printing is used for printing on otherwise impossible products in many industries including medical, automotive, promotional, apparel, electronics, appliances, sports equipment and toys. It can also be used to deposit functional materials such as conductive inks, adhesives, dyes and lubricants.

Pad printing utilizes a flexible silicone rubber transfer pad that picks up a film of ink from a photo-etched printing plate and transfers it to a three-dimensional part surface. The unique properties of silicone rubber allow distortion-free, single or multi-color images to be applied to flat, curved, or tapered surfaces with excellent definition and opacity. Pad printing inks, specifically formulated to adhere to various substrates, are used to decorate metals and ceramics as well as a wide range of of plastics. Ink viscosity is controlled by use of a closed-cup ink reservoir, which is moved over the etched plate by the printer’s mechanism. For multi-color decorating, two or more pads may apply additional images and colors to the part, while accurate image registration is maintained throughout the printing cycle. This precise repeatability also permits application of the same image for increased opacity. Fully automatic, high-volume pad printing systems may include surface pre-treatment, part handling and orientation, ink curing, and other auxiliary equipment.


A system for matching colors, used in specifying printing inks

A set of standard colours for printing, each of which is specified by a single number. You can buy a Pantone swatch book containing samples of each colour. Some computer graphics software allows colours to be specified as Pantone numbers. Even though a computer monitor can only show an approximation to some of the colours, the software can output a colour separation for each different Pantone colour, enabling a print shop to exactly reproduce the original desired colour. 


Make a proof of (a printed work, engraving, etc.)

A trial sheet of printed material that is made to be checked and corrected. Also called proof sheet.


Reprographics is a blanket term encompassing multiple methods of reproducing content, such as scanning , photography, xerography and digital printing. The term applies to both physical ( hard copy ) and digital ( soft copy ) reproductions of documents and images.


The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green, and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors. The name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colors, red, green, and blue.

RGB is an abbreviation for "Red Green Blue". RGB is a color model used on displays where red, green, and blue light are combined to make millions of colors.
RGB is how colors combine on screens because they are viewed directly, and not reflected off anything - like colors in traditional color theory which is based on reflective colors usually on paper.


Support discs are arranged normal to the screen axis and on opposite end pieces of the cylindrical screen, and portions of the screen holder are disposed in the space between the axially normal support discs of the screen end pieces and the cylindrical screen per se, whereby the support discs of the screen end pieces are rotatably supported adjacent the cylindrical screen by axial bearings carried preferably by the discs and engaging on portions of the screen holder as interposed between the axially normal support discs and the cylindrical screen. The support discs are preferably interchangeable on different screens and are preferably formed as radially projecting annular discs. Furthermore the support disc of at least one of the two screen end pieces can have outer peripheral serrations to serve as a ratio wheel and/or synchronous driving wheel of the cylindrical screen.


Force ink or metal onto (a surface) through a prepared screen of fine material so as to create a picture or pattern

Screen printing is a printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink-blocking stencil. The attached stencil forms open areas of mesh that transfer ink or other printable materials which can be pressed through the mesh as a sharp-edged image onto a substrate. A roller or squeegee is moved across the screen stencil, forcing or pumping ink past the threads of the woven mesh in the open areas.


In offset printing, a spot color is any color generated by an ink (pure or mixed) that is printed using a single run.

Refers to a method of specifying and printing colors in which each color is printed with its own ink. In contrast, process color printing uses four inks (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) to produce all other colors. Spot color printing is effective when the printed matter contains only one to three different colors, but it becomes prohibitively expensive for more colors.
Most desktop publishing and graphics applications allow you to specify spot colors for text and other elements. There are a number of color specification systems for specifying spot colors, but Pantone is the most widely used.


(Spot UV Varnished) Where an area/areas are picked out in high gloss. Stunning effect, works best with matt lamination for max contrast.

A varnish is a liquid coating applied to a printed surface (for example the outside of a presentation folder) to add a clear glossy, matte, satin, or neutral finish. 


*No good definition found... I'll be flying solo...*


A subtractive color model explains the mixing of paints, dyes, inks, and natural colorants to create a full range of colors, each caused by subtracting (that is, absorbing) some wavelengths of light and reflecting the others. The color that a surface displays depends on which colors of the electromagnetic spectrum are reflected by it and therefore made visible.


An individual thing or person regarded as single and complete, esp. for purposes of calculation.


Offset printing on continuous paper fed from a reel 

Web offset is a form of offset printing in which a continuous roll of paper is fed through the printing press. Pages are separated and cut to size after they have been printed. Web offset printing is used for high-volume publications such as mass-market books, magazines, newspapers, catalogs and brochures.

*All of my adapted definitions will be available for view in the glossary of my print manual, to be published on my Design Practice blog in the near future.

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