Wednesday, 29 February 2012

Design Practice II//YCN Brief//Graze & Innocent Smoothie adverts.

After Charlie mentioned that Graze, the company that we are rebranding and redesigning the packaging for for the YCN brief (see my Design Practice blog for more information) had an advertisement video available to view online, I went onto Vimeo to source it and was really surprised at the similarities it shared with the original Innocent Smoothie adverts- clearly inspired with the stop motion and hand-rendered elements of the design. As a market competitor, I'm not too surprised that Graze would go for a similar aesthetic to such a successful company as Innocent, and we ourselves are researching into the company for inspiration in terms of their branding success- however, we need to find ways to make Graze truly original and stand out from it's competitors, not simply 
to be an imitation.

Thursday, 23 February 2012

Image//Book Works//Dulux Colour Awards.

Found these gorgeous infographic designs by Josip Kelava on Behance which demonstrate the colour chart available for the Dulux Colour Awards.
I really love the combination of colours used and the minimalism in the design- just the sort of thing I am looking to achieve in my own designs (having started making colour wheels yesterday, which can be seen on my Design Practice blog)- wonderfully crisp designs, and a great source of inspiration- I will definitely be aiming for this sort of style and design outcome. 

Wednesday, 22 February 2012

Image//Book Works//More colour association.

Going through more research development for defining colour associations around the world and culturally with the colour 'yellow', which my final outcome for 'Book Works' is to be about- helping to "beef out" my design ideas a little more with added research!

Saturday, 18 February 2012

Image//Book Works//Print.

Looking at some simple methods in getting my x5 book designs made and printed for the 15th International Leeds University book fair after the project hand in on the 1st March- possibly looking into methods of commercial printing, not only to save on time, but also to ensure that a professionalism and consistency is met throughout my designs.

Whilst searching online, I returned to 'Blurb' a site I became familiar with last year- as well as a new site, 'Lulu'- both which offer self-publishing and print facilities. However, I don't think either will be ideal for this project, largely due to a restricted time frame for the design process as well as affordability. Selling each of the books at either £5/£10 means that I will get very little return- and, most likely, a loss if I were to commercially print these books at such a low unit order. Therefore, I have decided to take the opportunity to make the books myself- currently considering working to a perfect bind spine in a square format, which I think will add character and a slightly unique shape and quality to my designs.
Good video found from YouTube below which gives an introduction to perfect bind bookbinding- with useful information, in particular, about waiting times for glueing/dyring, etc. Will try a mock up of these asap!

Image//Book Works//Colour Swatches.

Researching various potential swatch combinations to use to represent my subject matter- yellow- in my 'Book Works' design outcome(s). Although I will use other colours in my designs, where necessary, I will aim to keep it at a minimum and merely use them as visual communication tools- along with a monochrome/greyscale palette to avoid too much yellow- therefore, potentially being off-putting or overwhelming.

Wanting to use a variation of colour swatches, I went onto the Adobe Kuler website to see which swatches would work well, and compliment one another and I got some great varities- however, some had dull, mustard or puce tones in them, which, as I have researched, sometimes have negative connotations such as jaundice or "yellow-bellied" cowardice, oppossed to the bright, happy, sunshine yellows.

My favourite swatch palette (image at the bottom of the post) is 'SUNNYSIDEUP', which I will go on to use in my designs- developments of which can be found on my Design Practice blog.

Image//Book Works//Blond(e) symbolism.

Insight and research into a different kind of "yellow"- blonde hair. Having blonde hair myself, it has always been highlighted as a novelty in my family (being the only one with naturally blonde hair, still in my adult years), though learning about the symbolism, cultural meanings and genealogy of blonde hair has always interested me- my own blonde hair, pale skin and blue eyes (in contrast to my brother's tanned skin and brunette hair, for instance, despite both having the same biological parents) being put down to Germanic heritage. Really interesting information below, and definitely a consideration for my design outcome- the developments of which can be found on my Design Practice blog.

Blond or blonde (see below) or fair-hair is a hair color characterized by low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin. The resultant visible hue depends on various factors, but always has some sort of yellowish color. The color can be from the very pale blond (caused by a patchy, scarce distribution of pigment) to reddish "strawberry" blond colors or golden-brownish ("sandy") blond colors (the latter with more eumelanin). On theFischer–Saller scale blond color ranges from A to J (blond brown).


Many sub-categories of blond hair have also been defined to describe someone with blond hair more accurately. Common examples include the following:
  •  blond/flaxen – when distinguished from other varieties, "blond" by itself refers to a light but not whitish blond with no traces of red, gold, or brown. This color is often described as "flaxen".
  •  yellow – yellow-blond ("yellow" can also be used to refer to hair which has been dyed yellow).
  • platinum blond or towheaded – whitish-blond; almost all platinum blonds are children. "Platinum blond" is often used to describe bleached hair, while "towheaded" generally refers to natural hair color.
  •  sandy blond – greyish-hazel or cream-colored blond.
  •  golden blond – a darker to rich, golden-yellow blond.
  •  strawberry blondVenetian blond or honey blond – a light or dark amberish golden blond.
  •  dirty blond or dishwater blond – dark blond with flecks of golden blond and brown.
  •  ash-blond – pale or grayish blond.
  •  bleached blondbottle blond, or peroxide blond – artificial blond slightly less white than platinum blond.

Evolution of blond hair

Natural lighter hair colors occur most often in Europe and less frequently in other areas. In northern European populations, the occurrence of blond hair is very frequent. The hair color gene MC1R has at least seven variants in Europe giving the continent a wide range of hair and eye shades. Based on recent genetic research carried out at three Japanese universities, the date of the genetic mutation that resulted in blond hair in Europe has been isolated to about 11,000 years ago during the last ice age.
A typical explanation found in the scientific literature for the evolution of light hair is related to the requirement for vitamin D synthesis and northern Europe's seasonal deficiency of sunlight. Lighter skin is due to a low concentration in pigmentation, thus allowing more sunlight to trigger the production of vitamin D. In this way, high frequencies of light hair in northern latitudes are a result of the light skin adaptation to lower levels of sunlight, which reduces the prevalence of rickets caused by vitamin D deficiency. The darker pigmentation at higher latitudes in certain ethnic groups such as the Inuit is explained by a greater proportion of seafood in their diet. As seafood is high in vitamin D, vitamin D deficiency would not create a selective pressure for lighter pigmentation in that population.

A theory propounded in The History and Geography of Human Genes (1994), says blond hair became predominant in Northern Europe beginning about 3,000 BC, in the area now known as Lithuania, among the recently arrived Proto-Indo-European settlers (according to the Kurgan hypothesis), and the trait spread quickly through sexual selection into Scandinavia. As above, the theory assumes that men found women with blond hair more attractive. An alternative hypothesis was presented by Canadian anthropologist Peter Frost, under the aegis of University of St Andrews, who published a study in March 2006 in the journal Evolution and Human Behavior. Frost said blond hair evolved very quickly in a specific area at the end of the last ice age by means of sexual selection. According to the study, the appearance of blond hair and blue eyes in some northern European women made them stand out from their rivals at a time of fierce competition for scarce males. The study argues that blond hair was produced higher in the Cro-Magnondescended population of the European region because of food shortages 10,000-11,000 years ago following the last glacial period when most of it was covered by steppe-tundra. Almost the only sustenance in northern Europe came from roaming herds of mammoths, reindeer, bison and horses and finding them required long, arduous hunting trips in which numerous males died, leading to a high ratio of surviving women to men. This hypothesis argues that women with blond hair posed an alternative that helped them mate and thus increased the number of blonds.

Geographic distribution

Blond hair is most frequently found among the populations of Northern Europe. The pigmentation of both hair and eyes is lightest around the Baltic Sea and their darkness increases regularly and almost concentrically around this region. A 2009 study found that light hair colors were already present in southern Siberia during the Bronze Age. Due to migration from Europe from the 16th to the 20th centuries, blonds are also found all around the world such as in North America, South America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa etc.

In Central Asia, the Middle East and South Asia, there is also a low frequency of natural blonds found among some ethnic populations. InPakistan, the Kalash tribe mostly have blond hair. In Afghanistan, blonds are particularly found among the Tajik (10% blond, especially in thePamir region), Nuristani people (related to the Kalash) who have a blond hair frequency of one in three. Blonde hair color can naturally occur even among other people from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan; this group includes Khowar people, Pashtuns,Kashmiris, Shina people, Burusho, and to a much lesser degree, Northern Punjabis.Generally, blond hair in Europeans is associated with lighter eye color (gray, blue, green and hazel) and light (sometimes freckled) skin tone. Strong sunlight also, on some people but not all, lightens hair of any pigmentation, to varying degrees, and causes many blond people to freckle, especially during childhood.
Blonds are also found in Turkey, especially in the northern (Caucasus) and western (European) parts of the country. Blonds are also found in parts of southwest and northern Iran, especially in the Caspian and Caucasus provinces. Blonds are also found in the Levant, Israel (especially among the Ashkenazi), in western Syria, in northern Iraq, and in the Palestinian territories. Jordan and Lebanon have a frequency of blonds as well. Blond hair is also a common sight among Berbers of North Africa, especially in the Rif and Kabyle region and also among Maghreb Arabs of Berber descent.
Aboriginal Australians, especially in the west-central parts of the continent, have a high frequency of natural blond-to-brown hair, with as many as 90–100% of children having blond hair in some areas. The trait among Indigenous Australians is primarily associated with children. In maturity the hair usually turns a darker brown color, but sometimes remains blond. Blondness is also found in some other parts of the South Pacific, such as the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Fiji, again with higher incidences in children. Blondness was also reported among indigenous peoples in South America known as Cloud People or Chachapoyas. There can be blond hair among Peruvian mestizos of mixed Cloud People and Spanish and/or other European descent.
Natural blonde hair is more common among young children than adults, as blonde hair usually darkens to a brunette shade with age. Natural blonde hair is rare in adulthood, with some reports that only about 7% of the world's population is naturally blonde.

Relation to age

Blond hair is most common in Caucasian infants and children, so much so that the term "baby blond" is often used for very light colored hair. Babies may be born with blond hair even among groups where adults rarely have blond hair although such natural hair usually falls out quickly. Blond hair tends to turn darker with age, and many children's blond hair turns light, medium, dark brown or black before or during their adult years. As blond hair tends to turn brunette with age, natural blonde hair is rare and makes up approximately 2% of the world's population.

Folklore and mythology

Southern Europe

The Greek gods are attested varying in their appearances. While Poseidon was described as having a blue-black beard, and Zeus blue-black eyebrows, Pindar described Athena as fair-haired, and Pheidas described her as golden-haired. Hera, Apollo and Aphrodite were also described as blonds. Pindar collectively described the Homeric Danaans of the time of the war between Argos and Thebes as fair-haired. The Spartans are described as fair-haired by Bacchylides. In the work of Homer, Menelaus the king of the Spartans is, together with other Achaean leaders, portrayed as blond. Although dark hair colours were predominant in the works of Homer, there is only one case of a dark hero, and that is when the blond Odysseus is transformed by Athena and his beard becomes blue-black. Other blond characters in Homer are Peleus, Achilles, Meleager, Agamede, and Rhadamanthys.

According to Victoria Sherrow, Romans preferred to dye their hair dark in the early period of Ancient Rome; at one point in time blond hair was even associated with prostitutes. The preference changed to bleaching the hair blond when Greek culture, which practiced bleaching, reached Rome, and was reinforced when the legions that conquered Gaul returned with blond slaves. According to Francis Owens Roman literary records describe a very large number of well-known Roman historical personalities as blond. In addition, 250 individuals are recorded to have had the name Flavius, meaning blond, and there are many named Rufus and Rutilius, meaning red haired and reddish-haired, respectively. The following Roman gods are said to have had blond hair: Amor, Apollo, Aurora, Bacchus, Ceres,Diana, Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Minerva and Venus. For example, the physical appearance of Emperor Nero, descended from an aristocratic family, is by the historian Suetonius described as: "... his hair light blond,... his eyes blue..."

Northern Europe

In Northern European folklore, supernatural beings value blonde hair in humans. Blonde babies are more likely to be stolen and replaced withchangelings, and young blonde women are more likely to be lured away to the land of the beings. Elves and fairies were often portrayed with blond hair in illustrations in children's book of fairy tales. This continues the theme that blond hair is associated with beauty and goodness.In Norse mythology, the goddess Sif has famously blonde hair, which some scholars have identified as representing golden wheat. In thePoetic Edda poem Rígsþula, the blond man Jarl is considered to be the ancestor of the dominant warrior class.

Blonds in fiction

In Miguel de Cervantes' Don Quixote, the ideal beauty is Dulcinea whose "hairs are gold"; in Milton's poem Paradise Lost the noble and innocentAdam and Eve have "golden tresses", the protagonist-womanizer in Guy de Maupassant's novel Bel Ami who "recalled the hero of the popular romances" has "slightly reddish chestnut blond hair", while near the end of J. R. R. Tolkien's work The Lord of the Rings, the especially favorable year following the War of the Ring was signified in the Shire by an exceptional number of blonde-haired children.

Contemporary popular culture

In science fiction, nordic aliens are described as human-looking with blond hair and blue eyes, hence the name 'nordic'. They are benign, following the association of blond hair with beauty and goodness in European folklore and mythology. In contemporary popular culture, it is often stereotyped that men find blond women more attractive than women with other hair colors. For example, Anita Loos popularized this idea in her 1925 novel Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Blondes are often assumed to have more fun, for example in a Clairol commercial for hair colorant they use the phrase "Is it true blondes have more fun?" Some women have reported after lightening their hair they feel other people expect them to be more fun-loving. The "blonde stereotype" is also associated with being less serious or less intelligent. This can be seen in blonde jokes. It is believed the originator of the "dumb blonde" was an 18th century blonde French prostitute named Rosalie Duthe whose reputation of being beautiful but dumb inspired a play about her called Les Curiosites de la Foire (Paris 1775). Blonde actresses have supported this role; some of them include Marilyn Monroe, Judy Holliday,Jayne Mansfield, and Goldie Hawn during her time at Laugh-In. Alfred Hitchcock preferred to cast blonde women for major roles in his films as he believed that the audience would suspect them the least, comparing them to "virgin snow that shows up the bloody footprints", hence the term "Hitchcock blonde". This stereotype has become so ingrained it has spawned counter-narratives, such as in the 2001 film Legally Blonde in which Reese Witherspoon succeeds at Harvard despite biases against her beauty and blonde hair, and terms developed such as cookie cutter blond (CCB), implying standardized blond looks and standard perceived social and intelligence characteristics of a blond. Many actors and actresses in Mestizo America and Hispanic United States seem to have Nordic features—blond hair, blue eyes, and pale skin.

Image//Book Works//Yellow animals.

Some basic research and image sourcing of various yellow animals on the living planet. Usually, I have found that yellow-coloured animals signify danger or a warning of toxicity to their predators- but I've found some interesting research which, in some cases, suggests otherwise- such as the sea anemone, usually yellow which purely is still yellow because of it's lack of predators- therefore, it hasn't needed to evolve to a darker colour for camouflage, and is, therefore, entirely natural. 
Lots of interesting facts and information, and, of course, beautiful animals which I could, potentially, use as a reference point for illustrations within my book works final design outcome.

Image//Book Works//The symbolism of bees.

A short research session looking into the symbolism and mythology of bees- undoubtedly one of (if not the major) the most distinctive and well-known yellow animals. I knew that in some cultures bees are renowned as sacred, so I felt it would be another interesting like to the culture and meaning(s) of yellow that I have already come to research and study.


The bee, found in Ancient Near East and Aegean cultures, was believed to be the sacred insect that bridged the natural world to the underworld. Appearing in tomb decorations, Mycenaean tholos tombs were even shaped as beehives.
Bee motifs are also seen in Mayan cultures, an example being the Ah-Muzen-Cab, the Bee God, found in Mayan ruins, likely designating honey-producing cities (who prized honey as food of the gods).


The bee was an emblem of Potnia, the Minoan-Mycenaean "Mistress", also referred to as "The Pure Mother Bee". Her priestesses received the name of "Melissa" ("bee"). In addition, priestesses worshipping Artemis and Demeter were called "Bees". The Delphic priestess is often referred to as a bee, andPindar notes that she remained "the Delphic bee" long after Apollo had usurped the ancient oracle and shrine. "The Delphic priestess in historical times chewed a laurel leaf," Harrison noted, "but when she was a Bee surely she must have sought her inspiration in the honeycomb." Ernst Neustadt, in his monograph onZeus Kretigenes, "Cretan-born Zeus," devoted a chapter to the honey-goddess Melissa.


The Homeric Hymn to Apollo acknowledges that Apollo's gift of prophecy first came to him from three bee maidens, usually identified with the Thriae. The Thriae was a trinity of pre-Hellenic Aegean bee goddesses. The embossed gold plaque (illustration above right) is one of a series of identical plaques recovered at Camiros in Rhodes dating from the archaic period of Greek art in the seventh century, but the winged bee goddesses they depict must be far older.
The Kalahari Desert's San people tell of a bee that carried a mantis across a river. The exhausted bee left the mantis on a floating flower but planted a seed in the mantis's body before it died. The seed grew to become the first human.
In Egyptian mythology, bees grew from the tears of the sun god Ra when they landed on the desert sand. The bowstring on Hindu love god Kamadeva's bow is made of honeybees.


In ancient Egypt, the bee was an insignia of kingship associated particularly with Lower Egypt, where there may even have been a Bee King in pre-dynastic times. After the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, this symbol was incorporated in the title usually preceding the throne name of pharaoh and expressing the unity of the two realms, He of the Sedge and of the Bee.
Honey bees, signifying immortality and resurrection, were royal emblems of the Merovingians, revived by Napoleon. The bee is also the heraldic emblem of the Barberini. In heraldry, the bee symbolizes diligence and indefatigable effort. Someone is said to be busy as a bee when he or she works tirelessly and regardless of schedules or breaks.
A community of honey bees has often been employed by political theorists as a model of human society. This metaphor occurs in Aristotle and Plato; in Virgil and Seneca; in Erasmusand Shakespeare and in Bernard Mandeville's Fable of the Bees, or Private Vices made Public Benefits, which influenced Montesquieu and Marx. Tolstoy also compares human society to a community of bees in War and Peace.

Image//Book Works//Yellow Foods.

Researching lists of yellow foods and naturally yellow products which could potentially work well as repeat pattern designs or illustrations (would work nicely as chapter divides, and so on).
The foods that I personally think would work most effectively (from the list below) as designs include:


Image//Book Works//Translations of Yellow.

Researching various different language translations of the colour 'yellow' for the potential for adding into my 'Book Works' design. With a lot of the facts and trivia that I have found being quite culturally diverse- it might be worth considering making a separate page for each culture/country/religion that I have found particularly relevant trivia on- of which the cultural translation would fit nicely into.


DUTCH geel
ENGLISH yellow
FRENCH jaune
GREEK κίτρινος
ITALIAN giallo
RUSSIAN желтый цвет
SPANISH amarillo

Image//Book Works//Phrases and Trivia about Yellow.

More facts and trivia about the colour yellow- some particularly interesting facts and figures here- again, lots of the information referring to cultural tradition and practice- which will give me a great opportunity to potentially work with some map infographics (which I seem to do every project? Destiny.), looking at maps and some strong visually communicative designs.

Phrases and Uses of Yellow
* In the Christian tradition Judas wore a Yellow coat when he betrayed Jesus.
* In the "Wizard of Oz", Dorothy followed theYellow Brick Road.
* In 1968 the Beatles' film and song Yellow Submarine was a huge hit.
* Law enforcement in North America uses bright Yellow tape to mark a crime scene.
* A Yellow Traffic Light means caution - or slow down.
* Yellow is often used for packaging No Name products to signify bargain pricing.
* Yellow Page phone directories are a common sight everywhere.
* We "tie a Yellow Ribbon" as a symbol of hope, peace and remembrance.
* The phrase "Mellow Yellow" is used to mean relaxed and laid back.
* The phrase "Yellow Journalism" is used to mean irresponsible reporting.
* The terms Yellow Bellied and Yellow Streakare used to signify cowardice.
* In the United States and Canada, most taxis are often Yellow Cabs.
* OSHA Coding uses Yellow signs to caution against physical hazards.
* In mythology, Greek Goddesses were always "golden haired" which has given us our fascination with blond people to this day.
* In the signs of the Zodiac, Yellow is usually associated with Taurus.

The word yellow comes from the Old English geolu, or geolwe which is derived from the Proto-Germanic wordgelwaz.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the oldest known use of this word in English is from The Epinal Glossary in the year 700.
In the English language, yellow has traditionally been associated with jaundice and cowardice.
The ancient Maya associated the colour yellow with the direction South. The Maya glyph for yellow (k'an) also means 'precious' or 'ripe'.
Yellow is traditionally associated with the Malay Rulers of Malaysia.
The Yellow Turbans were a Daoist sect that staged an extensive rebellion during the Han Dynasty.
Yellow is associated with the word ‘caution’ and is the second light on traffic lights.
Yellow pan traps are used to capture insects, many of which are attracted to shades of yellow.
Yellow is also associated with aging, for both people and objects (e.g. yellowed paper).
Yellow was also the colour of the New Party in the Republic of China (Taiwan), which supports Chinese reunification.

In the United States yellow is also associated with the Libertarian Party, to contrast with the Green Party (green), Democratic Party (blue) and Republican Party (red).
In the United Kingdom, yellow is associated with the Liberal Democrats.
In the United Kingdom, The Monster Raving Loony Party (OMRLP) has made use of yellow, along with black, as its primary party colours.
In cycle racing, the yellow jersey - or maillot jaune - is awarded to the leader in a stage race. The tradition was begun in the Tour de France where the sponsoring L'Auto newspaper (later L'Équipe) was printed on distinctive yellow newsprint.
Yellow (giallo), in Italy, refers to crime stories, both fictional and real. This association began in about 1930, when the first series of crime novels published in Italy had yellow covers.
More "Yellow" stuff 

She wore a Yellow Ribbon 1949 film starring John Wayne, Joanne Dru and Ben Johnson.
You’ll wonder where yellow went when you brush your teeth with Pepsodent 1950 Pepsodent jingle. 
Yellow Brick Road from the film the Wizard of Oz
Yellow Pages Classified telephone directory.
Yellow Journalism Term for inflammatory, irresponsible reporting by newspapers
Yellow Tail Marine game fish of Southern California and Mexico
Yellowstone First national park in the U.S.
Old Yeller 1957 Disney film about a boy and his dog.
The Yellow Kid 1896 it’s considered the first comic strip type cartoon.
Yellow Jackets Small variety of wasps
Yellow Submarine 1968 Beatles’ film based on a song by the same name
Tie a Yellow Ribbon ‘round the Old Oak Tree 1973 hit by tony Orlando and Dawn
Yellow Jack or Yellow Fever Infectious tropical disease caused by certain mosquitoes.

Image//Book Works//Yellow by culture.

A list of the various meanings and symbolisms that cultures attach to the colour yellow, and what they represent around the world. Inspired by an infographic design by 'Always with Honor', this is a subject matter I am particularly interested in, and think would work especially well within my designs.

Meanings of Yellow in Other Cultures
* In Japan Yellow means Courage and Nobility
* In Islam Yellow means Wisdom
* Hindus consider Yellow a Sacred color
* Buddhist monks wear Saffron Yellow robes
* In many Middle East countries Yellow represents Golden Prosperity
* In Egypt Yellow is reserved for Mourning
* In India Yellow is the color used by Merchants
* To Native Americans Yellow is the symbol for unconditional Love
* In China Yellow represents Honor and Royalty

* In Western cultures, particularly in Christianity (Judas wore a yellow coat after betraying Jesus), yellow can be symbolic for cowardice or betrayal.

Image//Book Works//Types of Yellow.

A list of the various different names for the types of yellow that can be found- most commonly used to distinguish the various shades and tones found in paints.
Yellow Color Names:
  • banana
  • cadmium yellow
  • chartreuse
  • chiffon
  • cream
  • golden
  • goldenrod
  • khaki
  • lemon
  • mellow yellow
  • saffron
  • topaz
  • yellow ocher